Home Language Learning Spanish Grammar Checklist: A Full Information to 45 Primary Spanish Grammar Phrases

Spanish Grammar Checklist: A Full Information to 45 Primary Spanish Grammar Phrases

Spanish Grammar Checklist: A Full Information to 45 Primary Spanish Grammar Phrases



Contemplate this submit your new finest buddy for Spanish grammar phrases.

Or a type of bookmarked pages you might have in your browser that you just examine occasionally.

Everytime you see a bizarre Spanish grammar time period you don’t perceive, come to this submit. Or print it out and preserve it along with your examine supplies—no matter makes you content.

Better of all, until you’re particularly learning for a grammar examination, you don’t have to be taught these phrases by coronary heart. Simply have them shut, as a result of they may undoubtedly come in useful.


45 Should-Know Spanish Grammar Phrases

The next Spanish phrases can be ordered alphabetically (in Spanish). For every you’ll see a brief definition and an instance displaying the notion in use.

1. Acento
 (Accent mark/stress)

The Spanish phrase acento has two primary meanings. On one hand, it’s the written accent mark we discover in some phrases (also referred to as tilde
). Then again, it means “stress,” as in the way in which a syllable (or a phrase) is pronounced with larger drive.

No te olvides de poner el acento
/ la tilde.

(Don’t neglect to put in writing the accent mark.)

And under in daring you’ll see which syllables are confused ( tienen acento
in spoken Spanish:

Me llamo Pedro.

(My title is Pedro.)

2. Adjetivo

As in English, Spanish adjectives are phrases which might be used to explain folks, locations and issues. Nevertheless, you’ll want to recollect these guidelines if you wish to use them correctly in Spanish!

Acabo de comprarme un coche rojo muy rápido.

(I’ve simply purchased a really quick pink automotive.)

3. Adjetivo demostrativo
 (Demonstrative adjective)

Demonstrative adjectives are a set of phrases we use to determine the folks, locations or issues we’re referring to (i.e., this, that, these, these, and many others.).

Este perro es mío y aquel es tuyo.

(This canine is mine and that one over there may be yours.)

4. Adverbio

Adverbs are phrases that modify a verb, an adjective, one other adverb or a sentence. They reply the query “How?”

Esa chica habla inglés muy bien.

(That woman speaks English very properly.)

5. Agente

The agent is the individual, animal or factor finishing up the motion of the verb. It’s usually the topic (see under) of the sentence, however it might additionally seem in passive buildings (see the second instance under), usually within the type of a by-phrase.

El niño lanzó la pelota.

(The boy threw the ball.)
The agent and the topic are the identical.

La pelota fue lanzada por el niño.

(The ball was thrown by the boy.)
The agent will not be the topic.

6. Artículo

Articles are a set of phrases that precede the noun and point out whether or not or not it’s already recognized. We’ve particular articles (el/la/los/las) and indefinite articles (un/una/unos/unas).

Though the idea is comparable in Spanish and in English, Spanish articles generally is a little bit of a headache generally, so that you’d higher be careful for them!

María tiene un hermano. El hermano de María es muy guapo.

(María has a brother. María’s brother could be very good-looking.)

El ordenador azul es más rápido.

(The blue laptop is quicker.)

7. Comparativo

The comparative is the type of an adjective or adverb that we use after we need to specific kind of quantity, high quality or diploma. We use the comparative kind for comparisons.

Soy más alto que tú.

(I’m taller than you.)

8. Complemento directo
, Objeto directo
 (Direct object)

Direct objects are the folks, locations or issues affected immediately by the motion of the verb. They usually reply the questions “What?” or “Who?”

Necesito unas tijeras nuevas.

(I would like a brand new pair of scissors.)
What do I would like? A brand new pair of scissors.

Ayer vi a tu hermano.

(I noticed your brother yesterday.)
Who did I see yesterday? Your brother.

9. Complemento indirecto
, Objeto indirecto
(Oblique object)

Merely put, oblique objects are the folks, animals or issues affected by the motion of the verb. You’ll seemingly want the prepositions “to” or “for” to render this in English.

In Spanish, nevertheless, you’re most certainly to search out the preposition a with oblique objects. In case of doubt, bear in mind to ask “To/For what?” or “To/For whom?” for the verb.

Antonio les ha comprado caramelos a los niños.

(Antonio has purchased sweet for the youngsters.)

What has he purchased? Sweet (= direct object).

He purchased sweet for whom? For the youngsters (= oblique object).

10. Condicional
 (Conditional tense)

As its title implies, the conditional tense expresses what would occur if a sure situation had been fulfilled. Whereas in English you usually use “would” + [infinitive], in Spanish it is advisable conjugate the verbs within the conditional tense.

You’ll additionally use the conditional tense when speaking in regards to the future in reported speech (see under), when making needs and when constructing conditional sentences.

Me gustaría ser rico.

(I want to be wealthy.) — Want

Dijo que llegaría tarde.

(He stated he can be late.) — Reported speech

Si tuviera dinero, compraría una casa.

(If I had cash, I’d purchase a home.) — Conditional sentence

11. Concordancia

Concordancia is the settlement between particular components of the sentence. As an illustration, in Spanish, there may be obligatory settlement between the noun and its adjective, and between the topic and the verb.

El gato negro siguió a la niña.

(The black cat adopted the woman.)

The noun gato and its adjective negro are each masculine singular.

Mis vecinos fueron a la playa.

(My neighbors went to the seaside.)

The third-person plural topic mis vecinos matches the third-person plural verb fueron.

12. Conjugación

The conjugation is mainly the way in which we classify verbs in Spanish. There are three conjugations (-ar, -er and -ir), and all common verbs inside the identical conjugation are conjugated in the identical approach.

You’ve in all probability heard this phrase used extra typically for its different that means, although: the completely different types of a verb (every kind indicating individual, tense and temper).

Me gusta cantar.

(I like singing.)

Gusta: -ar, third individual singular, current tense, indicative.
Cantar: -ar, infinitive.

Mi hermana no come verduras.

(My sister doesn’t eat greens.)

Come: -er, third individual singular, current tense, indicative.

Vosotros queríais que ella viniera a la fiesta.

(You wished her to return to the social gathering.)

Queríais: -er, second individual plural, imperfect, indicative.
Viniera: -ir, third individual singular, imperfect, subjunctive.

13. Conjunción

Conjunctions are phrases used to hitch sentences, phrases and different phrases. As in English, there are completely different teams of conjunctions labeled by that means and by operate.

Me gustan los perros y los gatos.

(I like canine and cats.)

Me gustan los perros pero no los gatos.

(I like canine, however not cats.)

14. Contracción

A contraction is the fusion of two phrases into one. Whereas we’ve a whole lot of them in English, Spanish solely has two contractions: al (a + el) and del (de + el).

Queremos ir al parque.

(We need to go to the park.)

Acabo de llegar del cine.

(I simply got here again from the cinema.)

15. Copulativo
(Copulative [verb])

A copulative verb is a selected sort of verb that hyperlinks the topic to the adjective or noun that describes it. The most typical Spanish copulas are ser, estar (to be) and parecer (to appear, to appear to be).

Mi hermano está cansado.

(My brother is drained.)

Esa nube parece un dragón.

(That cloud appears to be like like a dragon.)

16. Contable
/ Incontable

Countable nouns are these that may be counted (like one apple, two apples, three apples…), can take the indefinite article and will be preceded by a quantity.

Uncountable nouns, however, can’t be counted (like “water”, “salt,” “cash,” “milk”), don’t settle for the indefinite article and can’t be preceded by a quantity.

For these of you who’re saying “However you’ll be able to depend cash!,” this notice is for you: Phrases like “bottle,” “grain,” “greenback” and “gallon” are all countable nouns (i.e., three bottles of water, 50 grains of salt, 40 {dollars} and 4 gallons of milk)—however uncountable nouns alone can’t be preceded by a quantity: 40 moneys, 50 salts.

And you’ll in fact use quantifiers corresponding to mucho (a whole lot of), poco (little), suficiente (sufficient), and many others. in entrance of nouns.

Tengo tres casas.

(I’ve three homes.)

Tienes mucho dinero.

(You will have some huge cash.)

No tengo suficiente azúcar.

(I don’t have sufficient sugar.)

17. Diminutivos

Diminutives are phrases that specific small measurement, affection or lesser significance. With a purpose to kind a diminutive, it is advisable add a diminutive suffix to the unique phrase in Spanish.

Tu casita me gusta mucho.

(I like your little home quite a bit.)

18. Estilo directo
/ Estilo indirecto
(Direct speech/Reported speech)

Direct speech refers back to the precise phrases an individual is uttering or that they’re writing. Oblique or reported speech is the report of what another person has stated.

“Te amo,” me dijo.

(“I like you,” he stated.) — Direct

Me dijo que me amaba.

(He advised me he beloved me.) — Reported

19. Futuro
 (Future tense)

We use the longer term tense to point that one thing will occur sooner or later.

Te llamaré cuando llegue a casa.

(I’ll name you after I arrive dwelling.)

Tendrás que repetir el examen.

(You’ll have to take the examination once more.)

20. Género

Gender refers to the truth that a noun, pronoun, adjective or article will be female, masculine or neuter (neuter gender solely applies to pronouns).

El vaso blanco es muy bonito.

(The white glass could be very fairly.) — Masculine

La niña está avergonzada.

(The woman is embarrassed.) — Female

21. Gerundio
 (Gerund: -ing type of a verb)

The Spanish gerundio is an impersonal type of the verb which ends in -ando or –iendo, and is used to precise a steady motion.

Estoy comiendo pizza.

(I’m consuming pizza.)

Estaba volviendo de la escuela cuando sucedió.

(He was getting back from college when it occurred.)

22. Imperativo

The crucial is one in every of three Spanish moods (see under). We use the crucial to offer orders.


(Give it to me.)

Dile a mamá que compre naranjas.

(Inform Mother to purchase oranges.)

23. Imperfecto
/ Pretérito

The imperfect and the preterite are the 2 primary previous tenses in Spanish. Whereas the imperfect is used to precise uncompleted actions, the preterite is used for accomplished ones.

El hombre fumaba.

(The person was smoking.) — Imperfect

El hombre cerró la puerta.

(The person closed the door.) — Preterite

24. Indicativo

The indicative is one in every of three Spanish moods (see under). We use the indicative to precise information.

Tengo un hermano.

(I’ve a brother.)

25. Infinitivo

The infinitive is the bottom type of a verb. Do not forget that in Spanish, every infinitive belongs to one in every of three conjugations (sorts).

Me gusta correr.

(I prefer to run.)

Quiero comprar un coche.

(I need to purchase a automotive.)

26. Interjección

Interjections are phrases and sounds audio system use with the intention to specific shock, feelings, ache, and many others. Interjections are usually a response to another person’s phrases or deeds, or a response to one thing we’ve seen.

¡Ay! ¡Me duele mucho!

(Ouch! It hurts quite a bit!)

¡Eh! ¡Por ahí no!

(Hey! Not that approach!)

27. Intransitivo
/ Transitivo

An intransitive verb is a verb that can’t take a direct object. A transitive verb is a verb that can be utilized with a direct object.

La chica está sonriendo.

(The woman is smiling.) — Sonreír is intransitive.

Mamá me dio dinero.

(Mother gave me cash.) — Dar is transitive.

28. Irregular
/ Common

Common verbs are people who observe a selected sample of conjugation. Then again, irregular verbs are these that don’t observe stated sample.

Ayer comí pizza.

(I ate pizza yesterday.) — Common

Ayer no fui a la escuela.

(I didn’t go to high school yesterday.) — Irregular

29. Modo

Moods are units of verb types which might be used to precise the speaker’s angle with respect to the motion expressed by the verb. Spanish has three moods: indicative, subjunctive and crucial.

Me llamo Franco.

(My title is Franco.) — Me llamo is indicative.

No quiero que llegues tarde.

(I don’t need you to reach late.) — Quiero is indicative, whereas llegues is subjunctive.

Dame un abrazo.

(Give me a hug.) — Dame is crucial.

30. Nombre
, Sustantivo

Nouns are phrases that confer with issues, folks, locations, concepts, and many others. There are several types of nouns, the 2 primary sorts are correct nouns and customary nouns.

Mi perro es mi mejor amigo.

(My canine is my finest buddy.) — Each perro and amigo are widespread nouns.

Pedro es un hombre muy inteligente.

(Pedro is a really clever man.) — Pedro is a correct noun, whereas hombre is a typical noun.

31. Número

Quantity signifies if the individual, animal, factor, and many others. we’re speaking about is only one (singular) or multiple (plural).

Mi hermano tiene un coche.

(My brother has a automotive.) — Singular

Mi hermano tiene dos coches.

(My brother has two vehicles.) — Plural

32. Oración

A sentence is a gaggle of phrases that collectively specific a press release, a query or a command.

Está lloviendo.

(It’s raining.) — Assertion

¿Quieres venir conmigo?

(Do you need to include me?) — Query


(Shut up!) — Command

33. Persona
 (Particular person)

Particular person refers to every private pronoun (see under) and types taken by the verb. There are three within the singular (first individual, second individual, third individual) and three within the plural.

Yo no soy francés.

(I’m not French.) — First individual singular

te llamas Miguel.

(Your title is Miguel.) — Second individual singular

Nosotros somos felices.

(We’re pleased.) — First individual plural

34. Posesivos

Possessives are adjectives and pronouns we use to precise possession.

Su hermano es jardinero.

(His brother is a gardener.)

Este libro es mío.

(This e book is mine.)

35. Predicado

The predicate is the a part of a sentence that incorporates the verb and offers details about the topic.

El ordenador funciona perfectamente bien.

(The pc works completely wonderful.)

36. Preposición

Prepositions are invariable phrases that can be utilized earlier than a noun or pronoun to point place, time, place, and many others.

Voy a comprar la casa de Mateo.

(I’m going to purchase Mateo’s home.)

Me gusta viajar en tren.

(I like touring by prepare.)

Esto es para ti.

(That is for you.)

37. Presente easy
 (Current easy)

This is the tense utilized in Spanish to speak about recurring or repetitive actions, common truths and, generally, actions which might be happening in the mean time of talking.

Tengo mucha sed.

(I’m very thirsty.)

Los domingos voy a la iglesia.

(I’m going to church on Sundays.)

El Sol es una estrella.

(The solar is a star.)

38. Pretérito perfecto
Pretérito perfecto compuesto
 (Current good)

This tense is used to explain actions that befell up to now however are nonetheless by some means associated to the current.

Aún no he ido a la escuela.

(I haven’t gone to high school but.)

39. Pretérito pluscuamperfecto
 (Previous good)

This tense is used to explain an motion that befell earlier than one other previous, accomplished motion.

Cuando llegué, mamá ya se había ido.

(After I arrived, Mother had already left.)

40. Pronombre

Pronouns are phrases that substitute the noun or the noun phrase in a sentence. There are several types of pronouns each in Spanish and in English.

Me gusta este.

(I like this one.)

El libro es tuyo.

(The e book is yours.)

Dame un abrazo.

(Give me a hug.)

41. Subjuntivo

That is one of many three Spanish moods, and doubtless essentially the most tough one for native English audio system. It’s used to precise doubt, uncertainty, hypotheses, and many others.

No necesito que vengas.

(I don’t want you to return.)

42. Sujeto

The topic is the noun, pronoun or noun phrase that denotes the individual, animal or factor that performs the motion of the verb.

Mi amigo me compró un pastel para mi cumpleaños.

(My buddy purchased me a cake for my birthday.)

43. Superlativo

The superlative is the type of an adjective or an adverb that expresses its highest or lowest diploma.

Soy el más alto de la clase.

(I’m the tallest within the class.)

44. Verbo

Verbs are the phrases that specific actions and states in sentences. Though verbs are generally divided into common and irregular, there are another sorts you need to know.

Estoy viendo una película.

(I’m watching a film.)

Ana se duchó hace una hora.

(Ana took a bathe an hour in the past.)

45. Voz activa
/ Voz pasiva
(Lively voice/Passive voice)

Within the lively voice, the topic of the sentence performs the motion of the verb. Within the passive voice, the topic doesn’t carry out the motion however is affected by it.

Mi jefe despidió a Laura.

(My boss fired Laura.) — Lively voice

Laura fue despedida.

(Laura was fired.) — Passive voice

Learn how to Evaluate Spanish Grammar Phrases and Ideas

Now what these fundamental grammar phrases imply. However in fact, you additionally should learn the way they work!

One of the best ways to essentially memorize these ideas is by persistently noting them inside actual examples, full with context. You are able to do this in some ways with completely different assets.

You’ll be able to learn Spanish texts and punctiliously analyze how every little thing inside a phrase works collectively. Word which phrase performs what function (in Spanish) and jot down notes relating to your observations, whether or not it’s in regards to the phrase order, conjugations and so forth.

You can even take heed to audio clips or watch movies of Spanish audio system and dissect the sentences you hear into their grammatical elements. This may be carried out extra simply with subtitles, particularly if the speech will get a bit too quick or incorporates superior Spanish. You’ll find on-line movies on web sites like YouTube, although it’s not at all times assured that you just’ll get correct captions.

One other useful resource for practising grammar with movies is the language studying program FluentU. It equips brief genuine Spanish movies with interactive subtitles that present contextual phrase translations, grammar data and instance sentences. You’ll be able to then assessment what you be taught with flashcards and customized quizzes.

There are additionally different on-line assets, corresponding to fast grammar worksheets and checks, that may function nice observe materials.

Each language learner has a bit of hysteria on the subject of grammar. However with fixed publicity and observe, the ideas will turn into second nature. So on the subject of grammar research, go at your personal tempo!


And that’s it! Don’t panic once you encounter any of those technical-sounding phrases whereas studying Spanish.

Take it a step at a time. Discover one time period every single day, or two for those who really feel prefer it. Then return and assessment what you’ve realized every so often. Or simply print this record and take a look at it each time it is advisable. Your record, your grammar, your guidelines! (And also you rule, too, by the way in which!)

Grammar is your buddy, actually. Since grammar is the core of each language, it actually will assist you to begin uncovering it sooner slightly than later, one matter at a time. 

¡Buena suerte!
(Good luck!)



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