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7 Important Superior Spanish Grammar Suggestions and Methods for Learners


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Think about having the ability to grasp superior Spanish grammar to the purpose the place you’re feeling assured finishing up seemingly not possible feats of Spanish grammar.

It’s even doable to communicate Spanish like a local speaker, for those who simply dedicate a while each day towards this aim.

I’m right here to show you some superior Spanish grammar methods and have you ever in your option to changing into a Spanish grammar grasp! These mini-lessons will make it easier to deal with a few of the trickier facets of grammar with extra ease, reminiscent of the non-public a, makes use of of the infinitive and extra.

Contents

1. Comparability With a Quantity and a Clause

Comparability in Spanish is straightforward, proper?

You employ más/menos…que and you’re able to go:

Tengo más libros que Teresa. (I’ve extra books than Teresa.)

However what occurs whenever you need to examine a quantity? Take a look on the following sentence, which is an instance of a quite common mistake amongst college students of Spanish:

Había más que 9 personas en la cola. (There have been greater than 9 individuals within the line.)

It might appear this sentence has every part it wants so as to be appropriate, but it surely doesn’t!

When coping with comparisons with a quantity, overlook about que and use de as an alternative!

Había más de 9 personas en la cola.

Estuve esperando que volviera más de 3 meses. (I used to be ready for him to return again for greater than 3 months.)

And now comes the humorous half.

You possibly can say no más que + [number], that means “solely [number].”

Nevertheless, though no más que and no más de could have a fairly comparable that means, there may be positively a distinction between them, so attempt to not combine them up!

No quiero tener más que un hijo. (I solely need to have one youngster.)

No quiero tener más de un hijo. (I don’t need to have a couple of youngster.)

 No necesito más que 5 huevos. (I solely want 5 eggs.)

No necesito más de 5 huevos. (I don’t want greater than 5 eggs.)

No tengo más que 50 euros. (I solely have 50 euros.)

No tengo más de 50 euros. (I don’t have greater than 50 euros.)

In the case of evaluating with a clause, what we want to keep in mind is whether or not now we have a noun or pronoun to match or not.

If now we have one, simply use más/menos + del/de la/de los/de las + que, relying on the noun you’re referring to:

Tengo más dinero del que necesito. (I’ve extra money than I want.)

Corro menos kilómetros de los que solía correr antes. (I run fewer kilometers now than I used to.)

In case you don’t have any noun or pronoun to match, use más/menos de lo que:

Eres más alto de lo que pensaba. (You might be taller than I believed.)

Estoy más cansado de lo que imaginas. (I’m extra drained than you think about.)

Straightforward!

2. Emotions and Tener Expressions

Have you ever ever gotten into bother since you stated estoy caliente as an alternative of “tengo calor” (see beneath)?

Don’t fear! This can be a quite common error amongst learners of Spanish.

In Spanish, we wish to “have” a sense quite than “being” it. Simply bear in mind to make use of tener in entrance of this sort of expression and you’ll not must really feel embarrassed anymore.

The most typical tener expressions are…

Ayer tuve mucho calor. (I used to be highly regarded yesterday.)

  • Tener cuidado (to watch out):

Ten cuidado con lo que deseas. (Watch out what you want for.)

  • Tener experiencia (to be skilled):

Tom tiene experiencia en la venta de televisores. (Tom is skilled in promoting TVs.)

  • Tener frío (to be chilly):

¿De verdad tienes frío? (Are you actually chilly?)

  • Tener hambre (to be hungry):

Al volver a casa tenía mucha hambre. (He was very hungry when he got here again residence.)

  • Tener miedo (to be afraid):

Tengo miedo a las arañas. (I’m afraid of spiders.)

  • Tener prisa (to be in a rush):

Por favor, haz la compra que yo tengo prisa. (Please, do the purchasing. I’m in a rush.)

  • Tener razón (to be proper):

Creo que ella tiene razón porque aún no hemos recibido nada. (I believe she is true as a result of we haven’t obtained something but.)

  • Tener sed (to be thirsty):

Yo nunca tengo sed. (I’m by no means thirsty.)

  • Tener sueño (to be sleepy):

Siempre tengo mucho sueño después de almorzar. (I’m all the time very sleepy after lunch.)

3. The Crucial with Object and Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive and object pronouns are added to the top of the crucial kind when now we have a constructive crucial. This shouldn’t be troublesome for a sophisticated learner to understand, since now we have seen this already occurring in infinitives and gerunds.

Keep in mind that we usually hold the accent in the identical place after including the pronoun or pronouns, so you’ll have to add an accent mark if the ultimate phrase wants it.

Take a look at some examples:

  • Come (Eat!) → Cómelo (Eat it!)
  • Besa (Kiss!) → Bésala (Kiss her!)
  • Da (Give!) → Dámelo (Give it to me!)

If we have to add two pronouns, bear in mind the rule IO — DO (Oblique Object — Direct Object), or as we colloquially say in Spanish, Primero las personas y luego las cosas (Individuals first, then issues):

  • Devuelve → Devuélveme → Devuélvemelo (Give it again to me!)
  • Explica → Explícale → Explícaselo* (Clarify it to him.)
  • Enviemos → Enviémosle → Enviémoselas* (Let’s ship them to him.)

*Do not forget that pronouns le and les grow to be se after they have a second pronoun after them.

One other factor to keep in mind is the truth that in reflexive verbs, the vosotros crucial loses its last –d earlier than including the ending –os:

  • Afeitarse (to shave) → Afeitad → Afeitaos
  • Ducharse (to bathe) → Duchad → Duchaos
  • Levantarse (to rise up) → Levantad → Levantaos

There is just one exception to this rule! The verb ir (to go) retains the –d: ¡Idos!

When now we have a adverse crucial, the pronouns precede it. Do not forget that the le → se rule additionally applies right here:

  • No comas (Don’t eat!)
  • No lo comas (Don’t eat it!)
  • No le des (Don’t give to her!)
  • No se lo des (Don’t give it to her!)

4. Makes use of of the Infinitive

Infinitives can fulfill many various features each in Spanish and English. Nevertheless, we Spaniards love to make use of our infinitives most likely as a lot as English audio system love to make use of their gerunds (simply kidding!).

Right here you’ve gotten a few of the most necessary makes use of of the infinitive in Spanish.

a. We use infinitives after adjectives.

Es imposible saber la verdad. (It’s not possible to know the reality.)

Es bonito ver el atardecer contigo. (It’s lovely to see the sundown with you.)

Considero interesante leer ensayos. (I think about it fascinating to learn essays.)

b. We use the infinitive as a noun in Spanish.

It occurs that in English you’d use an –ing kind in these circumstances:

Me gusta correr. (I like operating.)

Fumar es malo para la salud. (Smoking is unhealthy on your well being.)

Detestamos comer pizza. (We hate consuming pizza.)

c. When now we have two verbs one after one other, the second will all the time be in its infinitive kind.

Two examples of this may be discovered above. Right here you’ve gotten some extra:

Quiero comprar un coche. (I need to purchase a automotive.)

¿Te apetece ir al cine? (Do you’re feeling like going to the cinema?)

No necesito estudiar más. (I don’t want to check extra.)

 d. We use infinitives after prepositions.

Fui a España para visitar a mi familia. (I went to Spain so as to go to my household.)

Sueña con volar. (He goals of flying.)

Acabo de terminar de trabajar. (I’ve simply completed working.)

e. We usually use the infinitive with directions (particularly in recipes) and warnings.

Añadir el azúcar y mezclar. (Add the sugar and blend.)

No tocar. (Don’t contact.)

Manipular con cuidado. (Deal with with care.)

5. The Private A

The Spanish preposition a has quite a lot of makes use of and tends to be a type of prepositions that seem in lots of college students’ nightmares. What quite a lot of learners don’t know is that, aside from its regular makes use of as a standard preposition, a has one other essential perform: marking the non-public object pronoun.

When our object or pronoun refers to a particular particular person or beloved animal, the preposition a precedes it:

Estoy buscando a mi hermana. (I’m in search of my sister.)

Voy a darles de comer a las tortugas. (I’m going to feed the turtles.)

Esta mañana he visitado a mi abuela. (I visited grandma this morning.)

Discover this doesn’t occur if now we have an indefinite object or factor:

Estoy buscando un profesor de francés. (I’m in search of a French trainer.)

Voy a comer sopa. (I’m going to eat some soup.)

Esta mañana he visitado un museo. (I visited a museum this morning.)

Necesito una novia. (I want a girlfriend.)

Additionally, use the non-public a when alguien, nadie, algún (-o,-a, -os, -as), ningún (-o, -a, -os, -as) or quién perform as direct objects:

Mi primo ha ido a visitar a alguien. (My cousin has gone to go to somebody.)

No quiero ver a nadie. (I don’t need to see anyone.)

¿Has visto a alguno de los invitados? (Have you ever seen any of the friends?)

No, no he visto a ninguno. (No, I haven’t seen any of them.)

¿A quién llamas? (Who’re you calling?)

And that’s it! Now you’ll not want a nadie correcting your errors!

6. Augmentatives, Diminutives and Pejoratives

Augmentatives, diminutives and pejoratives are shaped by including suffixes on the finish of a phrase. There are various suffixes in Spanish that can be utilized so as to change the that means of a phrase, however the next are those most frequently used.

Augmentatives

Augmentative suffixes usually make the noun greater. Nevertheless, fairly often an augmentative suffix can be utilized so as to add a way of gawkiness and clumsiness. The most typical augmentative suffixes are:

casa (home) → casona

mueble (furnishings) → mueblazo

That is usually used with elements of the physique as in cabezudo, or “large-headed.”

Diminutives

Diminutive suffixes are used for 2 most important functions. Firstly, we use diminutive suffixes to make the noun smaller.

Take a look at the commonest ones:

That is most likely probably the most standard, as in:

casa → casita

plato (plate) → platito

libro (e book) → librito

pájaro (fowl) → pajarillo

teléfono (phone) → telefonillo

lente (lens) → lentilla

pequeño (younger/small) → pequeñín

pillo (mischievous, rascal) → pillín

hombre (man) → hombrecico

puerta (door) → puertica

mesa (desk) → mesica

ladrón (thief, robber) → ladronzuelo

Secondly, we use diminutive suffixes to indicate endearment:

Francisco → Francisquito

Papá → Papito/Papaíto

Hermano → Hermanillo

José → Joselín

Pejoratives

Pejoratives are used to indicate grime, ugliness, and so forth. Spanish persons are masters in creating pejoratives from virtually any phrase. There are, nevertheless, a few suffixes that have a tendency to seem extra usually than others. Take a look at them:

libro → libraco

mueble → mueblaco

hilo (thread) → hilacho

rico (wealthy man) → ricacho

cama (mattress) → camucha

cuarto (room) → cuartucho

palabra (phrase) → palabreja

calle (road) → calleja

And now take that libraco and go research!

7. Reflexive Verbs with Change in Which means

Usually, the distinction between a non-reflexive verb and its reflexive counterpart is nonexistent, or a minimum of very, very slight. Some examples of this are:

  • comer (to eat) → comerse 
  • beber (to drink) → beberse 
  • tomar (to take) → tomarse 
  • leer (to learn) → leerse 

Word: Usually, whereas the change in that means could in actual fact be very slight, the reflexive kind intensifies the that means of the verb. As an illustration, within the first two examples above, the reflexive kind can even imply to “eat up” or to “drink up.”

Nevertheless, there are some verbs in Spanish which have totally different meanings (typically not associated in any respect) relying on whether or not we’re utilizing them as reflexives or non-reflexives.

Writing down an entire record can be outdoors the time and area scope of this publish, however there are some generally used verbs value mentioning:

  • acostar (to place to mattress) → acostarse (to go to mattress)
  • cambiar (to alter) → cambiarse (to alter garments)
  • dormir (to sleep) → dormirse (to go to sleep)
  • encontrar (to search out) → encontrarse (to be positioned)
  • levantar (to carry up) → levantarse (to rise up, to face up)
  • llevar (to hold) → llevarse (to take)
  • negar (to disclaim) → negarse (to refuse to)
  • parecer (to appear like) → parecerse (to look bodily like)
  • perder (to lose) → perderse (to get misplaced)
  • referir (to refer) → referirse (to concern)
  • reunir (to gather) → reunirse (to assemble)

I hope that no te has dormido studying this publish!

 

As you may see, you simply want some 10 minutes a day so as to study one thing new with these mini-lessons.

Begin utilizing this method on a day-to-day foundation, and you’ll very quickly understand you’ve gotten been making excuses to not research, as a result of it isn’t merely a matter of time.

Hope you loved the publish. See you quickly!

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